Prepared by Michael Ricci, MD
Corresponding chapter in Handbook of Venous Disorders: Chapters 9 and 10
Heit JA, Rooke TW, Silverstein MD, Mohr DN, Lohse CM, Petterson TM, O'Fallon WM, Melton LJ. Trends in the incidence of venous stasis syndrome and venous ulcer: A 25-year population-based study. J Vasc Surg 2001;33:1022-7.
Comment: Based on an epidemiologic study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, the authors concluded that the incidence of venous
stasis and ulceration had not changed over the previous 25 years. Not surprisingly, it was higher with advancing age and in women. This now classic study also stressed the importance of venous compression stockings and conservatively estimated the annual US expense
on this disorder at $200 million.
Criqui MH, Denenberg JO, Bergan J, Langer RD, Fronek A. Risk factors for chronic venous disease: The San Diego Population Study. J Vasc Surg 2007;46:331-7.
Comment: This is a recent epidemiologic study of a crosssection of patients with venous disease that identified both non-reversible and reversible risk factors for chronic venous disease.
Maurins U, Hoffmann BH, Lösch C, Jöckel K-H, Rabe E, Pannier F. Distribution and prevalence of reflux in the superficial and deep venous system in the general population - results from the Bonn Vein Study, Germany. J Vasc Surg 2008;48:680-87.
Comment: This is another important population study that utilizes the CEAP classification and duplex ultrasound in a very large group of patients. In concert with the previous studies, a epidemiologic picture of venous insufficiency can be developed.
McLafferty RB, Lohr JM, Caprini JA, Passman MA, Padberg FT, Rooke TW, Bush RL, Zakaria AA, Flinn WR, Eklof BG, Dalsing MC, Markwell SJ, Wakefield TW. Results of the National Pilot Screening Program for Venous Disease by the American Venous Forum. J Vasc Surg 2007; 45:142-8.
Comment: Though the findings of this screening program were consistent with other epidemiologic studies, it represents the initial experience of the American Venous Forum program to evaluate and educate about venous disease.
Beebe-Dimmer JL, Pfeifer JR, Engle JS, Schottenfeld D. The Epidemiology of Chronic Venous Insufficiency and Varicose Veins. Ann Epidemiol 2005;15:175-84.
Comment: A comprehensive review of the epidemiologic literature featuring chronic venous disease.